Cosmetology: Sanitation and Infection control Theory

Sanitation and Infection control: Principles and Practices
  • The term sanitation, also known as sanitizing, was used interchangeably to mean clean or cleaning.
  • Infection control professionals consider sanitation a Iayperson’s term or a product marketing term (as in hand sanitizers).
  • The term sanitize is defined: A chemical process for reducing the number of disease-causing germs on cleaned surfaces to a safe level.

Principles of Infection

Infection: the invasion of body tissues by disease causing pathogens
  • Pathogenic: Causes disease - Infection disease caused by Pathogenic organisms that enter the body.
  • Non-Pathogenic: Harmless
Inflammation a condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, or infection. Redness, heart, pain and swelling.
Contagious(Communicable disease): Disease that spreads from one person to other by contact.

How do we get rid of pathogenic organisms:
  • By cleaning and disinfection.
  • Cleaning and disinfection tools and equipment
    • To CLEAN: is a mechanical process using soap(detergent) and water to remove all visible dirt debris, and disease causing germs.
    • Disinfection: destroys most but not necessarily all harmful organisms on surfaces. It is not effective against bacterial spores.

Chief Sources of Spreading infection:
  • Dirty hands
  • Dirty implements
  • Open sores, pus
  • Mouth and nose discharge
  • Shared drinking cups
  • Telephone receivers
  • Dirty towels
  • Uncovered coughing pr sneezing
  • Spitting in public.
Always use standard Precaution measures to avoid Spread of infection:
  • Wear gloves when appropriate
  • Wash hands frequently and thoroughly for 20 seconds before and after each client.
  • Remove gloves immediately when finished with a procedure.
  • Immediately wash skin surfaces.
  • Wear a gown when appropriate
  • Wear a mask and goggles when appropriate
  • Wear a gloves when handling sharp objects
  • Do not handle needles or syringes
  • Avoid nicks and cuts
  • Bag all contaminated supplies.
  • Clear label body fluids

Regulations: Federal and state

Federal Regulatory Agencies: OSHA, MSDS and EPA

Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA)
  • To regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace.
  • This agency publishes the guidelines known as Universal Precautions
  • Universal Precautions - A set of guidelines published by OSHA that require the employer and the employee to assume that all human blood and body fluids are infectious for bloodborne pathogens.
  • OSHA enacted the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (this was a regulation) which created the Hazard communication Act.

MSDS: Hazard communication Act created the Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Both federal and state law require that manufacturers supply a MSDS
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are obtained from the product manufacturer.
  • Federal law requires manufacturers must provide important product information, precautions, pertinent safety and storage information, and ingredients in the form of Material Safety Data Sheets.
  • Not having MSDS's available poses, a health risk to anyone exposed to hazardous materials and violates federal and state regulations.
  • MSDS required that chemical manufacturers and imposters assess the hazard associated with their products and product safety.
  • MSDS' must be kept available in the salon for all the products.
  • MSDS must contain
    • Safe handling, use procedures, disposal guidelines, medical and first aid information.
    • Precautions to reduce risk of accidental harm or exposure and flammability warning.
    • Names of Hazardous ingredients.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Regulates different types of Disinfectants.
  • Disinfectants must be approved in each state.
  • Disinfectants that are licensed by the EPA will have an EPA registration number on the label.
  • The label of a licensed Disinfectants must contain:
    • EPA registration number
    • List organisms that product has been tested for
    • Directions for use
    • Safety precautions
    • Active ingredients

State Regulatory Agencies

State Regulatory Agencies protect the consumers:
  • Health
  • Safety
  • Welfare
  • They protect consumers by requiring everyone working in the facility to follow specific procedures. Enforcement and investigations of consumer complaints is part of their job.

State Regulatory Agencies include:
  • Licensing Agencies
  • State board of Cosmetology
  • Commissions
  • Health Department


Decontamination is the process of removing pathogens and other substances from tools and surfaces. The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item’s surface and the removal of visible debris or residue such as dust, hair, and skin.

Methods of Decontamination

1. Sterilization - Cleaning and then sterilizing
2. Disinfection - Cleaning and then disinfecting with and appropriate EPA registered disinfectant.
3. Sanitation

1st Method Sterilization:

The highest level of decontamination and infection control, kills all micro-organisms including bacteria and bacterial spores, viruses, and fungi.The primary method of Sterilization is an autoclave. Autoclave - sterilizes things with steam under pressure. They are used in hospitals, medical offices, and something spas. Extractors, tweezers and electrolysis needles can be autoclaved.

2nd Method Disinfection:

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