Cosmetology: Anatomy and Physiology Theory

Anatomy is the science that deals with the structure of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye; what is our body made of; skeletal system; muscles, etc.

Physiology is to study the functions of the structures of the body; for example what is the function of the lungs; to purify blood, convert oxygen to carbon dioxide, etc. 

Histology: Microscopic anatomy; A study of the science of the minute parts of the body, like hair follicle, arrector, pilli muscle, etc.


Cells are building blocks or basic units of all living organisms, like humans, plants animals and bacteria. Human body is made OF trillions of cells that carry out all life processes, and are constantly replaced by new cells.

  • Cell is composed of a colorless, jellylike substance called protoplasm, which carries nutrients for the cell - like water, protein, carbohydrates, fats and salts.
  • Protoplasm: Bacteria generally consists of an outer cell wall containing a liquid substance.
  • Protoplasm resemble to an egg white.

Cell Nucleus
  • Cell Nucleus is located at the center of the cell, nucleus is responsible for cell reproduction along with centrosome.
  • Nucleus resemble to an egg Yolk.

  • Centresome is responsible for cell reproduction along with the nucleus. Centresome is a small round particle in the cytoplasm.
Cell Cytoplasm
  • Cell Cytoplasm is a liquid where all the cell bodies float and exist (except the nucleus), it is a fluid which contains nutrients for the cell to grow and reproduce, like a dense protoplasm.

Cell Membrane
  • Cell Membrane is the covering them to cell, its wall, that keeps all the cell bodies and fluid inside, but also allows food in and waste out of the cell. Cell membrane resembles the eggshell.

Cell Reproduction

Cell grow and reproduce by two kinds of reproduction
  • Mitosis: Direct division
  • Amitosis: Indirect division
  • Mitosis: Direct division
    • In Direct division, the mother cell divides into  half baby cells there after each baby cell divides into half baby cells. Its a faster division.
  • Amitosis: Indirect division (Less Cells)
    • During Amitosis, a mother produce daughter one cell only and that daughter cell produces another one cell. So in this Indirect division, in three phases just only two daughter cell and other cell.

Cell Reproduction Conditions

Cells will reproduces if enough of all five conditions are present:
  • Oxygen
  • Food
  • Water
  • Proper temperature
  • Elimination of water products
Cell Metabolism

Cell Metabolism is a complex chemical processes in the body where the cells are supplied with nutrients to gain energy to help the body to function.

The two phases of Cell Metabolism are Anabolism and Catabolism.

  • Anabolism is the process of building up a larger molecules form smaller molecules, like storing energy. just think of it as A+ to remember that the body in anabolism phase of metabolism is storing adding (fat).

  • Cannibalism is the process of breaking down large molecules to smaller molecules; using energy that was stored during Anabolism phase. Just think of it as  C- (C minus), subtracting energy. If a person's body is in Catabolism phase more then in Anabolism phase, it will lose weight.

In reality, losing weight is very simple,  eat less use more energy


Tissues are combination of cells.

Tissues Types
  • Connective tissue: connects body parts together, like bones, ligaments, tendon fat tissue.
  • Muscular tissue: promotes one's body movement.
  • Nerve tissue: provide sensory reaction, sends messages to the brain and back to nerves.
  • Epithelial tissue: skin, linings of the heat, membranes: covers parts of the body.
  • Liquid issue: is in form of blood and lymph, urine, hormones.


Several tissue make an organ

Functions of Organs
  • Brain: the most important organ, controls the body.
  • Eyes: control vision.
  • Lungs: purify the blood, supply oxygen.
  • Heart: pumps the blood throughout the body, circulate it.
  • Kidneys: aids in excretion of waste products and water from the body.
  • Skin: provides protection, sensation, excretion, heat regulation, and secretion to the body.
  • Liver: eliminates waste products from digestion.
  • Stomach and intestines: digest food.


Systems are a combination of Organs

List of Systems
  • Circulatory: includes heart and blood vascular system.
  • Digestive: includes mouth, stomach, intestines and glands that aid to digestion.
  • Endocrine: includes glands that help growth and other body activities.
  • Excretory: includes lungs, liver, intestines,
  • skin, kidneys.
  • Integumentary system: includes skin and appendages of skin; hair, nail, sebaceous and sodoriferous gland.
  • Muscular: includes muscles.
  • Nervous: consists of brain and spinal cords, and nerves.
  • Reproductive system: has reproductive organs.
  • Respiratory system: includes lungs and air passages.
  • Skeletal system: Consists of bones and joints.

State board of Cosmetology requires the knowledge of the following for written test:
  1. Skeletal System
  2. Muscular System
  3. Circulatory System
  4. Nervous System ( for knowledge purpose)

1. Skeletal System
  • Osteology is the study of bones
  • Os is the technical name for bone.
  • This portion will include:
The bones of the skull, neck and chest, arms and legs.

  • The skull is divided into two parts: Cranium and facial bones.

  • Cranium:
    • Cranium Bones protect the brain.
    • Occipital: Bone at the nape area
    • Parietal: Side and top parts of the both sides of the cranium (2 bones).
    • Frontal: the forehead bone
    • Temporal bone: around the ears (2 bones).
    • Ethmoid bone: spongy bone that is located between the eye sockets.
    • Sphenoid bone: the bone that connects all cranium bones together.

  • Facial Bones
    • Nasal bones(2): parts of the bridge of the nose.
    • Two lacrimal bones: form wall of the eye sockets.
    • Zygomatic bones(2): cheek bones also called molar bones
    • Maxillae: 2 bones that form the Upper jaw.
    • Mandible: the only movable bone of the skull that forms the lower jaw; it is also the largest and the strongest facial bone. 

  • Bones of the neck
    • Cerical Vertebrate: The bone of the neck that are the upper 7n bones of the spinal column. 
    • Hyoid: Also called Adam's Apple; the U-shaped bone positioned at the front of the throat.


Humans have 14 phalages on each hand and 28 on both hands combined.