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Pharmacology Chapter 2 answers

Complete the following statements.
Pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug during absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

The physical changes that occur because of the drug are called the drug?
The physical changes that occur because of the drug actions are called the drug_____
ANS: Drug effect.

What is adsorption?
Absorption isa passage of a substance into the bloodstream from the site of administration. Follows administration & is the process by which a drug is made available for the body to use.
ex: Occurs after the dissolution of a solid form of the drug or after the administration of a liquid or parenteral drug.

What is Distribution?
Distribution is a transport of drugs to body cells and spaces between cells. The systemic circulation distributes drugs to various body tissues or target sites. Drugs interact with specific receptors during distribution.

Metabolism/biotransformation?
Metabolism/biotransformation is the rate at which cells produce energy such as heat and muscle strength; also known as biotransformation. It is the process by which the body changes a drug to a more or less active form that can be excreted. Usually the resulting form is a "Metabolite" (an inactive form of the original drug)

What is Excretion?
Excretion is the removal of waste substances from the body.
The elimination of drugs from the body called "excretion".
ex: After the liver renders drugs inactive, the kidney excretes the inactive compounds from the body.

Drug action is affected by four bodily processes:
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

The organs that excrete waste are the:
Kidneys, large intestine, lungs, skin (sweat and hair), (mammary)milk glands

Drugs used in therapy have two kinds of effects: ________ and _________.
Desirable, undesirable
local, systemic

Three symptoms of a drug allergy include____, _____ and ____.
skin rash, nasal drainage, and wheezing
skin rash, swelling, and itcy eyes.

Drug effects that result from a drug circulating through the body are called ___________ effects.
Systemic effects.

Drug effects that are confined to the area where the drug was administered are called _______ effects.
local effects.

Drugs act by ____________, __________, or ___________ the work of the cells.
Depressing, stimulating, destroying

Drugs also act by ________ substances that the body fails to produce.
Replacing

A placebo is___
a harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychologicalbenefit to the patient than for any physiological effect. A substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs.

Drug abuse is____.
the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs

Drug misuse is___.
Drug misuse refers to the use of a drug for purposes for which it was not intended or using a drug in excessive quantities.

A drug produces what type of effect when it has to travel through the bloodstream to affect cells or tissues in various parts of the body?
Drug action, Drug effect

What is responsible for drug allergy?
Histamine

What occurs when the body cannot metabolize and excrete one dose of a drug completely before the next dose is given?
A Cumulative Drug Effect, Toxicity

What is an overdose?
a dose that is too large for his/her age, size and/or physical condition.

What is the basis for treatment of drug overdose?
Notify supervisor immediately

List four over the counter drugs that are commonly abused.
laxatives, acetaminophen, aspirin, nicotine, and alcohol

What two critical symptoms may occur when a patient takes an overdose of central nervous system depressants?
Can create both serious physical as well as psychological which interfere with health and daily living

What does alcohol do to a patient who has taken an overdose?
alcohol heightens the effects of the medications.

Idiosyncrasy is ___.
is a term used to describe any unusual or abnormal reaction to a drug.

Five groups of drugs that are often abused are.
Alcohol, nicotine, anabolic steroids, barbiturates (downers), sedatives, or hypnotics and depressants, amphetamines and other stimulants.

If you suspect drug abuse, your obligation is to ____.
consult the nurse in charge

Physical drug dependence is _____.
habitual use of a drug, in which negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinue

Psychological drug dependence is ____.
is a compulsion or craving to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience; it is the mind's desire for the repeated administration of a drug.

What is an antidote?
a drug that has the opposite effect and can reverse the overdose symptoms.

Patient characteristics that might influence drug action.
kidney disease, aging, genes, sex, infancy, anger, obesity, poor circulation, cheerful mood, drug-taking history

What conditions relaxes the blood vessels and speeds up the circulation so that drugs act faster?
Heat

As a healthcare worker, you know that drugs are generally detoxified by which organ?
Liver

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