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Herd Immunity, Hydroxychloroquine - Coronavirus, COVID-19

Question: Which of the following FDA-guided processes/designations would be most applicable for administering experimental drugs to a patient with COVID-19 infection?
A: Fast track designation.
B: Breakthrough therapy.
C: Individual patient expanded access.
D: Accelerated approval.

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Individual patient expanded access.

Question: Which Statement is FALSE regarding vaccine development?
A: Human clinical trials can be bypassed for approval of vaccines during a pandemic.
B: Safety must be addressed in pre-clinical and human clinical trials.
C: It typically takes a decade or two for a human vaccine to be licensed.
D: The COVID-19 pandemic adds additional challenges to the vaccine development process.
E: The vaccine development is a long process with many built-in "checks and balances."

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Human clinical trials can be bypassed for approval of vaccines during a pandemic.

Question: The laboratory test called RT-PCR amplifies copies of the virus RNA to determine if the virus is present; it can also be used to estimate the amount of the original RNA template is present in the sample.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

True

Question: Anti-influenza drugs like oseltamivir (Tamiflu) have been shown to effectively treat patients with COVID-19 infection.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

False

Question: The sole reason that the elderly (> age 70) are at risk for severe disease upon COVID-19 infection is due to immune system senescence.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

False

Question: Which statement is FALSE regarding viral vaccines?
A. The goal of a viral vaccine is to elicit neutralizing antibodies and protective T-cell responses
B. Vaccines are critical to attain herd immunity and slow or stop outbreaks.
Each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages when it comes to safety and efficacy
D. There are multiple vaccine platforms/strategies.
E. Vaccines work best during a pandemic when they require multiple booster immunizations to provide protective immunity

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Vaccines work best during a pandemic when they require multiple booster immunizations to provide protective immunity

Question: The effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin has been studied in a randomized, blinded, controlled, clinical trial
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

True

Question: __________ is a term used to describe disease transmission interventions that slow the rate of transmission of a pathogen so that the number of critically ll people does not exceed the capacity of hospitals.
A. Flattening the curve.
B. Squashing the bug.
C. Extending the misery.
D. Quashing the infection.

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Flattening the curve.

Question: Which statement is FALSE regarding COVID-19 vaccine development?
A. Vaccines can be developed very quickly based solely on genetic sequences.
B. Certain vaccine platforms such as DNA vaccines can be made quickly during a pandemic but typically require multiple booster immunizations to elicit protective immune responses.
C. The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a poor candidate to be used as a subunit vaccine.
D. A COVID-19 vaccine timeline of 12-18 months is ambitious.
E. "Plug-and-Play" vaccine platforms allow the development of a variety of different vaccines.

Show or Reveal the Answer

Vaccines can be developed very quickly based solely on genetic sequences.

Question: Bats have __________ body temperatures due to flying which results in __________.
A. Decreased: decreased activation of immune cells.
B. decreased: better activation of immune cells.
C. Increased decreased activation of immune cells.
D. Increased: better activation of immune cells.

Show or Reveal the Answer

Increased: better activation of immune cells.

Question: It typically takes about 1 or 2 decades to develop and license human vaccines.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

True

Question: All types of vaccine platforms and strategies are highly efficacious and highly safe when used to develop viral vaccines.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

False

Question: Which of the following is FALSE regarding protective immune responses to viruses?
ANS: Cytotxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directly block and prevent viral infection of cells.

Question: Covid-19 can be transmitted by which method?
ANS: Droplets, indirect contact, aerosols

Question: Unlike other b-Coronaviruses, COVID-19 can be transmitted by an infected individual during the incubation period, before the disease becomes apparent.
A: True
B: False

Show or Reveal the Answer

True


how long does the coronavirus last
how long does the corona last
how long does coronavirus live on surfaces
how long does covid live on surfaces
how long does coronavirus last on surfaces
It is not certain

how long does coronavirus live on cardboard
24 hours

how long does it take to get symptoms of coronavirus
within 11 to 12 days

how long does fever last with coronavirus
a few days

how long does coronavirus live on paper
up to 5 days.

how long does coronavirus live on plastic bags
how long does coronavirus live on plastic
2 to 3 days

how long does coronavirus last on clothes
how long does coronavirus live on fabric
how long does coronavirus live on clothes
how long does coronavirus stay on clothes
can't say it

coronavirus how long does it last
how long does covid 19 last on surfaces
how long does covid 19 last on surfaces
how long does covid 19 live on surfaces
Wood: 4days
Metal: 5 days
Stainless steel: 2 to 3 days
Copper: 4days
Aluminum: 2 to 8 hours
Plastics: 2 to 3 days
Cardboard: 24 hours
Glass: Up to 5 days
Paper: up to 5 days.
clothes: It is not certain

Question: Which of the following is FALSE regarding the challenges currently faced to develop COVID-19 vaccines:
ANS: The number of doses needed to vaccinate entire populations will be very high but luckily manufacturing facilities are available and have not been affected.

Question: In which specific phase of human clinical studies would the PRIMARY goal be to determine dose ranges and does responses?

Herd Immunity, T Cell, Antibody
There are multiple vaccine platforms/strategies:
Each platform has its advantages and disadvantages when it comes to safety and efficacy. The goal of a viral vaccine is to elicit neutralizing antibodies and protective T-cell responses. Vaccines are critical to attain herd immunity and slow or stop outbreaks.
The vaccine development is a long process with many built-in “checks and balances”. The COVID-19 pandemic adds additional challenges to the process. Safety must be addressed before/concurrently with human clinical trials: better safe than sorry!
Vaccines can be developed very quickly based solely on genetic sequences. Gene synthesis allows production of DNA sequences based on the virus – no need to have a virus sample!. “Plug-and-Play” vaccine platforms allow the development of a variety of different vaccines. Work at UConn is ongoing with numerous collaborators and volunteers… (quick development but long process)

Hydroxychloroquine, Oseltamivir, Azithromycin
The FDA drug approval process is complex, well-regulated, scientifically rigorous, and works well to ensure safe and effective use of medications in patients. It takes a long time to bring a drug from development to clinical use!!!
Emergent events (epidemics, pandemics) make using the usual FDA drug approval process impractical. FDA has mechanisms in place for emergent use of non-approved investigational drugs. Prescribers can use FDA-approved drugs in an off-label manner with proper discretion and consideration of risks vs. benefits. At this time, all use of medications to treat COVID-19 infection is considered “off-label” and/or experimental

Herd Immunity, Zoonosis, Natural Reservoir
Infectious diseases spread through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin, commonly through indirect, direct, or aerosol/droplet transmission.
There are times before and after one feels sick with an infectious disease in which they can spread the pathogen; this is the case with COVID-19.
The AVERAGE number of people that will become infected from an infected individual is called the R0, but keep in mind this number is affected not only by properties of the virus but host behavior and status of immunity as well.
Herd immunity is achieved when a sufficient number of individuals in a population have immunity to stop the spread of a pathogen within the population; this does not mean that an individual within the population is necessarily safe.
The higher the R0 of a pathogen, the more individuals need to be immune to achieve herd immunity.
Super spreaders are individuals that find themselves in circumstances that enable them to spread the infectious disease to many more naïve individuals than should be standard for the pathogen; this is important for the spread of Coronaviruses.
Isolation, quarantine, and social distancing are methods to reduce the spread of a pathogen within the population; these methods can be used to eliminate the pathogen or at least “flatten the curve” on the spread.

Zoonotic diseases are those transmitted between animals and humans
Reservoir hosts are the so-called “natural” host of a pathogen, in which co-evolution of pathogen and host has occurred and little to no disease results during infection; incidental/intermediated/dead-end hosts are those that the pathogen “jumps into on accident” (naïve), typically resulting in severe disease.

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